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GRAPHIC DESIGN GLOSSARY
 

GRAPHIC DESIGN GLOSSARY

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

C

Callout: An explanatory label for an illustration, often drawn with a leader line pointing to a part of the illustration.

Camera-ready copy: Final publication material that is ready to be made into a negative for a printing plate. May be a computer file or actual print and images on a board.

Cap height: In typography, the distance from the baseline to the top of the capital letters.

Caption: An identification (title) for an illustration, usually a brief phrase. The caption should also support the other content.

Cap height: The height from the baseline to the top of the uppercase letters in a font. This may or may not be the same as the height of ascenders. Cap height is used in some systems to measure the type size.

Cap line: An imaginary horizontal line running across the tops of capital letters.

Caps & lower case: Instructions in the typesetting process that indicate the use of a capital letter to start a sentence and the rest of the letters in lower case.

Caps & small caps: Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type.

Centered: Text placed at an equal distance from the left and right margins. Headlines are often centered. It is generally not good to mix centered text with flush left or flush right text.

CGI script: An external applicaton that is executed by an HTTP server in response to an action you perform in a Web browser, such as clicking a link, image, or another interactive element of a Web page.

Character: Any letter, figure, punctuation, symbol or space.

Choke:
In commercial printing, a form of trapping created by extending the background object into the foreground object.

Clip art: Ready-made artwork sold or distributed for clipping and pasting into publications. Available in hard-copy books, and in electronic form, as files on disk.

Coated art paper: Printing papers used for printing projects that require a special treatment of detail and shading.

Coated stock: Any paper that has a mineral coating applied after the paper is made, giving the paper a smoother finish.

Color bars: This term refers to a color test strip, which is printed on the waste portion of a press sheet. It is a standardized (GATF-Graphic Arts Technical Foundation) process that allows a pressman to determine the quality of the printed material relative to ink density, registration and dot gain. It also includes the Star Target, which is a similar system designed to detect inking problems.

Collage: The combination of several images to a single surface to create a piece of art. Can be done with original images or in a digital format.

Color separating: The processes of separating the primary color components for printing.

Color transparency: Transparent film containing a positive photographic color image.

Condensed (type): A narrow, elongated typeface.

Comprehensive or comp: A layout illustrating a proposal depicting what a finished piece will look like.

Contrast: The degree of tonal separation or gradation in the range from black to white.

Color Channel: An 8-bit grayscale version of an image. Each channel represents one level of color in the image; for example, RGB has three color channels, while CMYK has four. When all the channels are printed together, they produce the entire range of colors in the image.

Color separation: The process of creating separate negatives and plates for each color of ink (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) that will be used in the publication.

Color spacing: The addition of spaces to congested areas of words or word spacing to achieve a more pleasing appearance after the line has been set normally.

Column gutter: The space between columns of type.

Comprehensive layout (comp): A blueprint of the publication, showing exactly how the type will be set and positioned, and the treatment, sizing, and placement of illustrations on the page.

Condensed font: A font in which the set-widths of the characters is narrower than in the standard typeface. (Note: not the inter-character space -- that is accomplished through tracking).

Continuous tone: Artwork that contains gradations of gray, as opposed to black-and-white line art. Photographs and some drawings, like charcoal or watercolor, require treatment as continuous-tone art.

Copy: Generally refers to text -- typewritten pages, word-processing files, typeset galleys or pages -- although sometimes refers to all source materials (text and graphics) used in a publication.

Copyfitting: The fitting of a variable amount of copy within a specific and fixed amount of space

CorelDRAW files (.cdr) Are drawings made up of vector graphics. Vectors define a picture as a list of graphic primitives (rectangles, lines, text, arcs, and ellipses). Vectors are mapped point by point to the page, so if you reduce or increase the size of a vector graphic, the original image will not be distorted.

Counter: in typography, an enclosed area within a letter, in uppercase, lowercase, and numeric letterforms.

Contour: An effect created by adding evenly spaced concentric shapes inside or outside the borders of an object.

Contrast: The difference in tone between the dark and light areas of an image. Higher contrast values indicate greater differences and fewer gradations between dark and light.

Crop marks: Mechanical, horizontal and vertical lines that indicate the edge of the printed piece.

Corel Metafile Exchange (.cmx files):
A metafile format that supports bitmap and vector information and the full range of Pantone, RGB, and CMYK colors. It was developed to save files created in CorelDRAW with the data necessary to open and edit them in other Corel applications.

CMYK: A color mode made up of cyan (C), magenta (M), yellow (Y), and black (K) that produces true blacks and a wide tonal range. In the CMYK color mode, color values are expressed as percentages; therefore, a value of 100 for an ink means that it is applied at full saturation.

Color Separation: In commercial printing, the process of splitting colors in a composite image to produce a number of separate grayscale images, one for each primary color in the original image. In the case of a CMYK image, four separations (one for cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) must be made.

Cropping: For artwork, cutting out the extraneous parts of an image, usually a photograph.

Cutlines:
Explanatory text, usually full sentences, that provides information about illustrations. Cutlines are sometimes called captions or legends; not to be confused with title-captions, which are headings for the illustration, or key-legends, which are part of the artwork.


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